Assoc Prof. Dr. Garry KUAN

Using Brain-breaks on motives of participation in physical activity among Malaysian primary school children

Brain breaks is a web-based structured physical activity (PA) video that is specifically designed for school settings and can stimulate a student’s health and learning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of using brain breaks on motives of participation in PA among Malaysian primary school children. Purposive sampling was used to divide 159 male and 176 female students aged 10 to 11 years old, mean (SD) = 10.51 (0.50) from two schools in Kelantan, Malaysia into intervention (n = 183) and control (n = 152) groups. Students undertook brain breaks activities on every school day (five minutes per session) spread out for four months. Mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the students’ motives of participation in PA for pre-, mid- and post-tests using the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale-Youth-Malay (PALMS-Y-M). Mixed factorial ANOVA showed significant changes in enjoyment, F(2, 392) = 8.720, p-value (ηp2) = 0.001 (0.043); competitiveness, F(2, 195) = 4.364, p-value (ηp2) = 0.014 (0.043); appearance, F(2, 392) = 5.709, p-value (ηp2) = 0.004 (0.028) and; psychological condition, F(2, 392) = 4.376, p-value (ηp2) = 0.013 (0.022), whereas, mastery, affiliation, and physical condition were not significant (p < 0.05). Further post-hoc analysis revealed a significant downward trend in the control group (p-value < 0.05). Brain breaks is successful in maintaining students’ motives of PA in four of the seven factors.  

Assoc Prof. Dr. Garry KUAN


Lecturer, Exercise and Sports Science Programme, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Secretary-General, Asian-South Pacific Association of Sport Psychology (ASPASP)
Executive Board Member, Asian Council of Exercise and Sports Science (ACESS)
Senior FLV, Global Community Health Foundation (GCH)




Assoc. Prof. Dr Garry Kuan is a lecturer of the Exercise and Sports Science Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. He is also a visiting research fellow of the Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University London, United Kingdom. Currently, Garry is the Secretary-General of the Asian-South Pacific Association of Sport Psychology (ASPASP), the Secretary-General of the Malaysian Sport Psychology Association (MASPA), an executive board member of the Asian Council of Sports Science (ACESS) and the Senior Future Leader Volunteers (SFLV) of the Global Community Health Foundation (GCH). Garry research had won numerous awards internationally. He received the “A-CIPA Young Researcher Award” at the 27th International Congress of Applied Psychology (2014), International Scholars Award at the ICSEMIS pre-Olympic conference (2012), and the Atsushi Fujita Research Scholarship (2011) at the 6th ASPASP conference. In his leadership role, Garry was awarded the Australian Leadership Award (2013) and Victoria Ambassador Award – Young Person (2012). In 2012, Garry also received a rare honour of all Australia’s International Student of the Year.